Scientific Research and Methodology

This page brings together the different courses and tutorials on scientific research and research methodology. Scientific research primarily refers to all actions undertaken with a view to producing and developing scientific knowledge. By metonymic extension, scientific research also designates the social, economic, institutional and legal framework of these actions.

méthodologie recherche scientifique

Course materials

After reading the course on problematic and the state of the art, you must to write your Proposal of research :

If you are in a doctorate or master thesis (or already have a doctorate), here are methodologies for writing papers in conferences or journals:

Even if you are not a researcher, you may be asked to present work of the same type. You will also be required to present intelligence/reports/monitoring:

  • Write a scientific watch
  • Write a technology watch

After publication, or during seminars or thesis monitoring, you will have to present your research work in several formats:

Popularization format:

Here is a general template for a research paper:


Definition of scientific research

Research has been defined in different ways, and although there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, overarching definition that is adopted by all who engage in it.

Research in simple terms is the search for knowledge and the search for truth. In the formal sense, it is a systematic study of a problem attacked by a deliberately chosen strategy which begins with the choice of an approach to prepare the master plan (design) by acting on it in terms of design hypotheses research, choice of methods and techniques, selection or development of data collection. tools, data processing, interpretation and ends with the presentation of the solution(s) to the problem.

Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or problem." It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question and present an answer to the question.

The Merriam-Webster online dictionary defines research further as “an in-depth investigation or examination; in particular: an investigation or experiment aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, the revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or the practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”

Scientific research covers very heterogeneous realities.

The Frascati manual, to satisfy statistical needs, defines several types of research:

  • Fundamental research, undertaken primarily (but not always exclusively) with the aim of producing new knowledge regardless of application prospects.
  • Applied research, which is directed toward a practical goal or objective.
  • Development activities (sometimes confused with technological research), which consists of the application of this knowledge for the manufacture of new materials, products or devices.

We must also of course take care to distinguish between the different disciplinary sectors: research in philosophy is obviously very different from that in molecular biology or archaeology.

Depending on the different forms of research encountered, different kinds of standards and rules govern scientific practices.

These norms and rules are not always legal. The sociology of science thus reports the existence of norms specific to the scientific field.

The different forms of research are also distinguished by the different “technical” standards that guide intellectual activity. It is the object of regional epistemologies to analyze and understand these local epistemic imperatives. Likewise, the “ scientific method » is not there even according to different search regimes.

Research obviously aims to produce scientific knowledge. But this knowledge can take various forms: it can be publications, reports, patents, oral communications, etc.

Finally, this knowledge can be incorporated into new machines, instruments or devices. These are all these products which, by being disseminated within the scientific community, allow the researcher to be recognized by his peers, and to receive in return the means necessary to continue his work.